—–. 1989. The brand new Sentence structure and Semantics out-of Verb Morphology into the Progressive Aramaic: A beneficial Jewish Dialect regarding Iraqi Kurdistan. American Oriental Collection, 69. This new Refuge: Western China Neighborhood.
Meehan, Charles, and Jacqueline Alon. 1979. This new Son Whose Tunic Caught to Him: Good Folktale regarding Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect off Zakho (Iraqi Kurdistan). Israel Chinese language Studies nine:174-203.
Sabar, Yona. 1976. Lel-Huza: Story and you may Records for the a cycle away from Lamentations on the Ninth from Abdominal regarding Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect off Zakho. JSS -62.
—–. 1988. The publication out of Exodus for the Neo-Aramaic regarding Dialect of your Jewish Neighborhood of Zakho [Hebrew]. Jerusalem: Magnes Drive.
These six binyanim regarding Syriac was indeed lower in NENA to help you a few basic groups, which have a third closely allied into the second
Thomason, Sarah Grey, and you will Terrence Kaufman. 1988. Words Get in touch with, Creolization, and you can Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley and you may Los angeles: Univ. off California Push.
The first classification originated from this new peal, another classification about pael, and the 3rd, whose vocalism employs compared to next, comes from brand new afel
Various other foundation complicating the trouble is the differential impacts of the various co-territorial dialects. The dialect differences contained in this Kurdish have become considerable, and also to its impact will be tracked a number of the variation certainly NENA languages. For example, the Jewish Neo-Aramaic guyspy kullanÄ±cÄ± adÄ± regarding Halabja, like the Kurdish of your city, cannot distinguish something special and upcoming stressful, however, where Kurdish preserves such as for instance a distinction, very really does Neo-Aramaic. Within the Azerbaijan, Turkish have exerted good influence on the new Jewish dialect (Garbell 1965b), plus the dialects of your basic out-of Mosul reveal a robust influence out of Arabic perhaps not viewed someplace else.
Tkhuma (Tx): The words out-of descendants from emigrants from one of your own partial-independent ashirets regarding the southern area of Poultry, today resident along side Khabur Valley within the Syria. Information is out of Jacobi (1973) and you may my personal notes.
(5) Syriac had around three first spoken stems, the new peal, the brand new pael, and afel. To those had been additional three passive stems, designed on the earliest ones because of the prefixation of elizabeth[Theta]-: the elizabeth[Theta]pael, brand new age[Theta]paal, in addition to ettafal. This case can be found during NENA. In the most common NENA languages, verbs commonly stay-in the fresh new verb kinds in which they certainly were utilized in prior to values of your words. That’s, the descendant regarding good Syriac peal verb could be a great NENA Group We verb, and a Syriac pael verb could well be good NENA Category II verb: such as for example, Urmi ptaxa ‘open’ away from before peal, and you may sadure ‘send’ from prior to pael. not, inside Jewish Azerbaijani, Halabja, and possibly Koy Sanjaq, the course subscription has been reorganized and is foreseeable into the foundation of your model of this new stalk in lieu of the historic source. For example, inside the Azerbaijani the fresh new C stem has the form CaCoC- to have voice verbs, any its source, and you can CCaC- to own center-weakened verbs: garosen ‘I in the morning pulling’, however, kwasan ‘I (f.) are descending’ (Garbell 1965, 64).
(11) Another very tall innovation in the NENA ‘s the third individual copula with l: ile ‘he is’, ila ‘she is’. This type can get derive (Noldeke 1868, 203) away from i[Theta] leh ‘he has’, but no copula want it is based outside NENA. The initial and you can second people don’t have an enthusiastic l, except into the Jewish Azerbaijani, where the l might have been generalized from the paradigm: Jilu iwIt ‘you (masc.) are’, Aradhin we:victory ‘I (masc.) am’, Azerbai big’ (Garbell 1965, 64). ile can be found through the NENA but in Halabja, which has -(y)e: yarxa rahamim-ye ‘it ‘s the week regarding mercy’. None Turoyo nor Mandaic features models parallel so you’re able to ile: Turoyo harke-yo ‘he is here’, harke-no ‘I was here’; Mandaic basim-ye ‘he is actually charming’, basim-na ‘I have always been charming’ (Macuch 1965, 443).
(19) The existing Aramaic term to have ‘son’, bra in the BT, could have been prolonged in every NENA but Hertevin from the addition of diminutive suffix -ona/-una: Azerbaijan Jewish brona (Garbell 1965, 297), Jilu bruna (Fox 1992, 51), Aradhin bru:na (Krotkoff 1982, 122), Tisqopa brona (Rubba, personal interaction), Zakho brona (Meehan and you will Alon 1979, 177). not, both Turoyo and you may Mandaic features an enthusiastic epenthetic vowel, however, zero suffix: Turoyo ?abro (Jastrow 1985, 221), and you will Mandaic eber otherwise ebra (Macuch 1965, 520).
b) In many cases, Hertevin aligns that have Turoyo, contrary to the rest of NENA. It lacks an effective CCaCa establish stressful (6), has no sodir preterite (12), doesn’t have preposition ta (15), and you will uses ruh to create reflexive pronouns (14).
—–. 1965. The fresh Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect away from Persian Azerbaijan: Linguistic Study and you may Folkloristic Texts. Janua Linguarum, collection practica step three. This new Hague: Mouton.